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Fusion welding is a generic term for welding processes that rely upon melting to join materials of similar compositions and melting points

Due to the high-temperature phase transitions inherent to these processes, a heat-affected zone is created in the material(although some techniques, like beam welding, often minimize this effect by introducing comparatively little heat into the work piece

Contrast with solid-state welding which does not involve melting of materials.


Types of fusion welding include :

Arc welding

Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapor, and/or slag.

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Oxy-fuel welding

Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes. Still used in industry, in recent decades it has been less widely utilized in industrial applications as other specifically devised technologies have been adopted. It is still widely used for welding pipes and tubes, as well as repair work. It is also frequently well-suited, and favored, for fabricating some types of metal-based artwork.

In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal. The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler material depends upon the metals to be welded.

In oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag.

Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not considered oxy-fuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (Oxy-fuel cutting requires two isolated supplies, fuel and oxygen). Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank torch. As such, single-tank torches are typically used only for soldering and brazing, rather than welding.

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